Technology

The Birth and Death of Stars: Understanding Stellar Evolution

The essence of night and its beauty has been appreciated by man since the beginning of time. When people look at the sky, the stars shine endlessly and it is impossible to tell how old they are. Stars, however, go through a very interesting life cycle that includes formation, development and finally death, which may take billions of years. Studying stellar evolution helps one understand the formation and the formation of some basic elements required in the formation of life.

In this article, I planned to discuss the features of stars’ life narratives. The following points will be discussed: How does interstellar gas and dust build up to form stars, how do stars get their energy and how do stars evolve by fusing atoms in their core, how do stars progress through different stages of maturation and the last phase of the stars life. Understanding the process of star formation and the mechanisms of star deaths offers insights into the process of the birth of planets, systems and the components that are required to support life in the Universe.

The Stellar Nursery: The Formation of Nebulae and Stars

Stars are formed in large and compact areas called nebulae from molecular gases found within galaxies. These brilliantly glowing nurseries, called nebulae, are primarily made of cosmic dust and gasses, which were produced by previous generations of stars. A great majority of interstellar clouds are made up of hydrogen; helium is the second most abundant constituent, while other elements are present in much smaller concentrations.

Gravity results in accumulation of the gas and dust of the nebula in compact regions known as molecular clouds. Matter falls into these clouds, compressing to well over a million molecules per cubic inch and cool to -243 degrees centigrade. The contracting cloud becomes a flat disk through conservation of angular momentum in the process of contracting. The outermost part of this accretion disk is surrounded by a disk which has the highest density known as a protostar that later ignites into a new born star.

Particles of dust and dirt turn into a protoplanetary system around the forming star, as do pebbles and boulders. Solid particles combine and group, forming larger lumps that eventually form asteroids, comets, moons, and planets. Excess gas rises to become solar wind and is covered by purification to form volatile composites such as water ice and organic molecules. Thus stellar nurseries not only create new stars but sometimes whole systems as well.

Stellar nurseries are not only the places that give birth to new stars, but also whole systems sometimes.

Ignition: The Nuclear and Reactions that Fuels a Star

The protostar goes through the process of contraction and as the mass falls inward the pressure and heat at the core increases to the point of nuclear fusion. At this stage the hydrogen nuclei continue to burn to form helium and they release energy for billions of years and at the same time prevent further gravitational collapse of the stars.

On the same note, quantum tunneling enables positively charged protons of hydrogen to get nearer each other in a way that counters the repulsive force. The nucleons of two protons and two neutrons join to form a helium nucleus accompanied by the emission of a gamma ray photon.

This fusion process unleashes about 0.7% of the star’s mass, transforming it into energy through Einstein’s equation of energy equal to mass times the speed of light squared (E=mc2). Radiative equilibrium is reached: the internal thermal pressure pushing outwards balances gravity’s squeeze. Finally, a star is made.

Life Cycle Process of a Star and its Evolution

A star’s mass to a great extent defines how long the star will live, and what will become of it once its life is over. Stars with large mass consume nuclear fuel at a faster rate, so they cannot exist for a long period of time as compared to the lower mass stars. Thus, the life cycle of stars is diverse, and all stars go through different stages in the process of their evolution. In the next few pages, we look into the main stages in the evolution of stars.

Protostar Phase

  • Collapsing molecular cloud
  • An accretion disk around a protostar is formed
  • Protostar lets ink dry and warms up

Main Sequence Phase

  • Hydrogen fusion in this core
  • The density of star flattens and star reaches hydrostatic equilibrium
  • Main Sequence is the longest phase of the star which constitutes 90% of the star’s lifespan.

Red Giant Phase

  • Core hydrogen exhausted
  • Contamination remains constant in outer shell
  • Star increases in size many times or it increases in size in many ways.

Helium Fusion Phases

  • As such, higher mass stars convert helium to carbon using the triple-alpha process.
  • Elements added by fusing farther

Pre-Supernova Phase

  • One of the most interesting phenomena is multilayered structures resembling an onion, containing various fusion products.
  • Iron core gets up to the Chandrasekhar limit
  • Supernova imminent

Supernova Phase

  • Star explodes cataclysmically
  • Some iron group elements were hurled into space
  • It may contain a remnant neutron star or black hole

Protostar Phase

Protostar is formed when a condensation within the molecular cloud has accreted to about 90 Jupiter masses. Its core temperature is greater than 2000 K; it heats the gas that is in its proximity. The disk called accretion forms around the protostar, with dust, gas, and debris being fed into the developing new star.

They last for about 100 000 years and they keep accreting matter until most of the stellar mass is obtained, at least 80 times the mass of Jupiter. Average temperatures in the core are above 10 million K which ignites nuclear fusion. The protostar phase continues until the temperature rises to high levels that would allow for hydrogen fusion.

Main Sequence Phase

The new star passes on to the main sequence stage where it uses hydrogen in its core and converting it into helium for about 90 percent of its stellar lifespan. Mass has a direct impact on how fast fusion takes place and the reaction rate of energy production. For more massive stars, it burns their nuclear fuel at a faster rate since they need higher temperatures and pressure to counter their tough gravity.

Our Sun will be going through the main sequence for approximately 10 billion years. At this stable period, key elements such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen may be synthesized in outer envelopes through radiation from the core. The stars that are found in the main sequence are of seven different types and they are divided according to the temperature and mass; the high temperature stars are blue and massive stars which are of O, B, and A types while the low temperature stars are red and small and these are of G, K and M types.

Red Giant Phase

Finally the supply of hydrogen in the core is over. They also lose the temperature and pressure from the fusion process, the star begins to cool and shrink. This enables the gravity to pull the core inwards and compress it to a further level. During the same process, the outer layers of the star extend out to a much greater radius, as the inert helium core spirals inward.

Temperatures at the stellar surface drop and the star becomes much larger, red hued during the phase, tens to hundreds of times larger than what it was during its main sequence life. During what is referred to as the red giant phase, the Sun is believed to expand to a size almost similar to the current size of the earth’s orbit. Swallowing Mercury and Venus in the process.

There are also many interesting facts about the planets including its four natural satellites which are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

Helium Fusion

Masses of stars at least half that of the Sun may turn helium into carbon and oxygen in the triple-alpha process during the helium burning phase. Stars with greater mass can burn progressively denser elements, synthesizing elements from hydrogen through iron during mid-to-late life cycle processes.

During the helium burning process, the stars evolve in different ways depending on what they were initially composed of. Low mass stars in the red clump burn helium relatively peacefully. Intermediate mass stars develop into luminous red giants or red giant branch stars. The most massive stars evolve and become unstable stars that have pulsation, variable blue and red supergiants.

Pre-Supernova Evolution

Non-massive stars do not go through the phase of releasing their outer layers and forming a red giant star as do the gigantic stars, but they transform into beautiful planetary nebulas. The core is thus left with only the tiny mass and finally cools down to a black dwarf or a white dwarf depending on the mass.

But for super massive stars, the more evolved fusion states lead to proportional onion-like layers of heavier elements up to iron in the core. Iron making requires energy and this leads to speeding up of collapse. When the iron core of a star surpasses 1.4 solar masses or 4 × 10 33 gm, the pressure compresses electrons onto nuclei to form neutrons. When iron forms, the star cannot sustain its own mass, thus, a supernova occurs shortly after the formation, a year at most.

High Mass Stars and Supernovae Explosions/Supernovae Explosions and High Mass Stars

At the end of their evolution stars with a mass of at least eight times the solar mass develop an iron core that exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit through nuclear fusion. Electron capture by nuclei and photo-disintegration of elements leads to the core-collapse process that happens in a split second. This causes an implosion that releases shockwaves, which blow apart the star’s outer shell in a rather violent manner. It radiates as brightly as an entire galaxy for a short time and at some moments, it shines as 5 billion Suns!

Explosion radiations expand in the interstellar medium, triggering compression of clouds of gas and dust which in time coalesce to birth subsequent generations of stars. This temperature and energy regime builds the elements that are heavier than iron through neutron capture. Supernova debris, uranium, plutonium and gold particles among other elements formed as the result of the supernova go into space flying.

The remaining stuff is an extremely compact neutron star or if it is very large it collapses to a black hole. While the stellar lifetime is marked with explosions, the material ejected helps form nebulae with heavy elements for the chemistry needed for worlds and life.

Stellar Evolution in Context

Studying the beginning or birth of stars from stellar nurseries and the end or death of stars has assisted us in unlocking many mysteries of our universe. Understanding how stars are born, change and finally die in billions of years tell the rather old story after the big bang itself.

This process goes on and is made possible by means of advanced telescopes and spectrography methods. To measure the density of protoplanetary accretion disks in nebulae helps to explain the early stages of solar systems. Proper theories of more complicated modes of fusion display how the production of elements essential for biological life occurred. It also shows supernova blasts and provides information about its conditions in the early stage of the universe.

We know the stars are formed over millions of years, and when we gaze at the night sky on a clear night, we see the result of the processes that have been ongoing for a long time. Nearly a history of evolution as if the firmament has been etched by the recent occurrences that happened millions of years ago. From telescopic, cosmic and quantum views to the nanoscale, the birth and death of stars as celestial bodies are one of the overpowering phenomena in the natural world.

Stellar life cycle is a key focus not only in the formation of galaxies but also in the provision of fundamental components that are necessary for the development of worlds favorable to life. Due to this, they have a crucial function that ensures our survival here on planet earth.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *