Botox:The cosmetic and medical uses of Botulinum toxin

Botox , or botulinum toxin is a highly potent neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.The toxin is also used commercially for medical and cosmetic purposes.Botulinum toxin is an acetylcholine release inhibitor and a neuromuscular blocking agent.

How does Botox work?

Botox blocks nerve signals to muscles. As a result, injected muscles can’t contract (tense up). These effects are always temporary, but can last for several months. The muscle injected depends on the primary area of concern. Several areas can be treated in one session.


Medical uses of Botox

Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement,which includes

Muscles spasticity

  • Cerebral palsy
  •  Post-stroke spasticity,post spinal cord injury spasticity,spasms of the head and neck, eyelids, vagina,limbs, jaw, and vocal cords.
  •  Botulinum toxin is used to relax the clenching of muscles, including those of the esophagus, jaw,lower urinary tract and bladder
  •  Botulinum toxin appears to be effective for refractory overactive bladder.

Strabismus,also known as improper eye alignment, is caused by imbalances in the conduct of muscles that rotate the eyes. This condition can occasionally be relieved by weakening a muscle that pulls too explosively, or pulls against one that has been weakened by any disease or trauma. Muscles weakened by botox injection recover from palsy after several months, so injection might feel to need to be repeated, but muscles acclimatize to the lengths at which they’re chronically held,so that if a paralyzed muscle is stretched by its antagonist, it grows longer, while the antagonist shortens, yielding a endless effect.
Excessive sweating

Botox injections can be used to reduce the excessive sweating from the axillary region or hands .


Botox injections are used for the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine but have no definitive role in episodic migraine.

Some people also have Botox injections for off-label, or unapproved, uses, including  as treatments for:

  • alopecia
  • Psoriasis 
  • eczema , which affects the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
  • anismus, a dysfunction of the anal muscle
  • post-herpetic neuralgia
  • vulvodynia, pain and discomfort in the vagina without a clear cause
  • Raynaud’s disease, which affects circulation
  • achlasia, an issue with the throat that makes swallowing difficult


Cosmetic uses of botox



Botox Cosmetic is an injectable wrinkle muscle relaxer. It uses botulinum toxin type A, specifically OnabotulinumtoxinA, to temporarily paralyze muscle. This reduces the appearance of facial wrinkles.


A Botox treatment is minimally invasive. It’s considered a safe, effective treatment for fine lines and wrinkles.Botox is most often used on forehead lines, crow’s feet (lines around the eye), and frown lines. Wrinkles caused by sun damage and gravity will not respond to Botox. It can also be used for lip lines and for the chin and corner of the mouth and neck.People often request the injections in the following areas of the face:

  • wrinkles between the eyebrows, called frown lines, glabellar lines, or elevens
  • wrinkles around the eyes, known as crow’s feet
  • horizontal creases in the forehead
  • lines at the corners of the mouth
  • “cobblestone” skin on the chin

How is the botox procedure done?



It’s a minimally invasive procedure. It doesn’t involve incisions or general anesthesia. If you’re concerned about pain or discomfort, a topical anesthetic or ice can numb the treatment area. 

During the procedure, your physician dermatologist will use a thin needle to administer 3-5 injections of botulinum toxin type A. They will inject the targeted area between the eyebrows. You will usually need three injections on the side of each eye to smooth out crow’s feet. 

The entire procedure takes approximately 10 minutes.It generally takes three to fourteen days to take full effect, and it is best to avoid alcohol starting at least one week before the procedure. You should also stop taking aspirin  and anti-inflammatory medications two weeks before treatment to reduce bruising.

What to expect after Botox Cosmetic

Avoid rubbing, massaging, or applying any pressure to the treated area. These actions can cause Botox Cosmetic to spread to other areas of the body. This can negatively affect your results. When being injected between the brows, do not lie down or bend over for three to four hours. Doing so may cause the Botox to slip under the orbital rim. This could possibly cause an eyelid droop. 

There is little to no downtime expected after the treatment. You should be able to resume normal activities immediately in most cases. 

It’s important to understand possible improvements and have realistic expectations. Noticeable results can be expected within 1-2 days post-treatment. The full effect of Botox Cosmetic typically lasts up to four months. It can also help prevent the return of fine lines through relaxing the muscles.

Risks and side effects

People generally tolerate Botox injections well, and side effects are uncommon. 

However, depending on the reason for the injections and the person’s response, Botulinum toxin can cause some unwanted effects,, including:

  • dry eye, following cosmetic uses
  • an upset stomach
  • numbness
  • mild pain, swelling, or bruising around the injection site
  • a headache
  • temporary eyelid drooping
  • temporary unwanted weakness or paralysis in nearby muscles
  • urinary problems after treatment for urinary incontinence
  • a worsening of neuromuscular disorders
  • spatial disorientation or double vision after treatment for strabismus
  • corneal ulceration after treatment for blepharitis
  • cardiovascular events, such as arrhythmia and myocardial infarction

People should not use Botox if they have:

  • a sensitivity or allergy to it
  • an infection at the injection site 

How much does Botox Cosmetic cost?

  • The average cost of a botulinum toxin treatment such as Botox Cosmetic is around $5oo to $1500. Costs may vary depending on the number of injections, the size of the treatment area, and the geographic location where you receive treatment.


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